Her original name was Tommelise. Tommel is the Danish word for thumb. When Hans Christian Andersen made up this name, he was clearly inspired by older folklore existing in Denmark and other countries. Just for context, Thumbelina appeared in 1835, twenty-three years after the Grimm brothers' first collection featuring Daumling, and eighteen years after the writer Rasmus Nyerup referenced a Danish folklore character named Svend Tommling.
Andersen is one of the most frequently translated fairy tale writers in the world, and for every translation of his work, there's another name for Tommelise. Here's a list:
Gishtëza (gisht = finger; Gishtëza translates literally as Thimble)
Matnačap'ikë or Matnachapik (մատ, mat = finger)
Erpurutxo (erpuru = thumb)
Цалёўка/Calioŭka (цалевы, calievy = inch)
খর্যকায়ার বিবব়ণ/Kharvakāyār vivaraṇa. Translated by Madhusudan Mukhopadhyaya as part of the Bengali Family Library.
палечка/Palechka, Palečka (palets = thumb)
မလက်ငယ် (Ma Let-Than/Miss Little Finger)
Ditona (dit = finger; Carner 1918, 1936),
Patufeta (Patufet is a Thumbling of Catalan folklore)
Central Alaskan Yup'ik:
拇指姑娘 (Muzhǐ Gūniang, Thumb Girl)
Malenka (málo = small, maličký = tiny)
Duimelijntje (duim = thumb)
In 1846, one of the first English translations of Tommelise renamed her Thumbelina.
Little Ellie (Boner 1846)
Little Totty (Chatelain 1852; tot, small child)
Little Tiny (Paull 1872)
Little Maia (Lang 1907)
Inchelina (Haugaard 1974)
Thumbeline (Bell 1985)
Thumbelisa (Frank 2005)
Estonian – Pöial-Liisi (pöial = thumb)
Finnish – Peukalo-Liisa (peukalo = thumb)
La Petite Poucette (pouce = thumb)
"Mam'zelle Tom Pouce" was used as the French title for the 1978 anime adaptation.
ნამცეცა (namts’ets’a, tiny)
Däumelinchen (from Daumen, thumb),
Τοσοδούλα (Tosodoúla – probably derived from the Greek word for “tiny”)
אצבעונית (Etsbeonit. This translates literally to Foxglove, which in Hebrew is derived from the word for finger. Foxglove flowers are the right size to be worn on fingers.
Hüvelyk Panna (huvelyk = Inch, Panna = nickname for Anna);
Pöttöm Panna (pöttöm = tiny)
Mignolina (from mignolo, Little Finger)
Pollicina (from pollice, thumb)
Þumalína (þumalfingur = thumb)
親指姫 - (Oyayubi-hime, Princess Thumb)
엄지 공주 - (Eomji gongju, Thumb Princess)
Īkstīte (īkšķis = thumb)
Coliukė (Colis = Inch)
Degețica (Deget = finger)
Polish – (list and translations by Bogusława Sochańska)
Calineczka (Rygiel 1909, Cal = Inch)
Calinka (Little Inch Girl, Lewestam 1859)
Calóweczka (Little One-Inch Girlie, 1892)
Paluszka (Little Finger Girl, Młodnicka 1892)
Malutka (Little One, 1898)
Dziecię elfów (Elfin Child, Niewiadomska 1899)
Kruszynka (Little Moppet, Przemski 1938)
Palusia (Little Finger Girlie, Tarnowski 1938)
Odrobinka (Little Whit Girl, Zechenter 1946).
Polegarzinha (polegar = thumb)
Дюймовочка / Dyuĭmovochka (Дюйм = Inch)
Лизок с вершок/Lizok-s-Vershok (a literal translation of Tommelise)
Крошка/Kroshka (tiny; A. Fedorov-Davydov)
Томмелиза/Tommeliza (S. Zaymovsky)
Лизо́к с ноготок/Lizok-s-nokotok (nokotok = nail)
Палчица, Palčica (Палац, Palac = Thumb)
Palculienka (palec = thumb)
Tummelisa (tumme = thumb)
Pulgarcilla (pulgar = thumb)
Almendrita (little almond)
Chiquirritica (El Tesoro de la Juventud, 1915)
Turkish – Parmak Kız (Finger Girl. Parmak Cocuk is Thumb Boy)
Cô bé tí hon (tiny little girl)
Tí hon ("tiny" – a name also used for the Grimms’ Thumbling).
Nàng Út or Nang ngón út (Miss Little Finger) is also translated as Thumbelina.
Bodlen (bawd = thumb)
Sochańska, Bogusława. “Was a New Polish Translation of Hans Christian Andersen’s Fairy Tales and Stories Necessary?”
This website is based on my research into folklore.